By Kianna LaBine
Studying abroad is the first thing I think of when anyone mentions travelling while in school. It is a popular program in universities across the board; and honestly, sounds like a great time. The University of Alberta --where I went for my degree, offers many programs in tons of countries, including a South Africa field program. Once I investigated more, I realized that this was definitely something I could not afford. At the time the summer program was $15,000 for the International student fees alone, plus flights and living expenses.
I began looking for international internships and volunteering in basically any country that had animals. Since I had never traveled alone before, I wanted to go through a reputable third-party group to ensure I was in good hands. Some of the larger organizations that I was looking at were Volunteerhq.org, gvicanada.ca and goeco.org. My search began with each website, time commitment, price, duties, requirements, and the countries average temperature at the time (I really did not want to spend weeks outside in 40+ weather). I weighed the pros and cons of each opportunity and ended up with my choice – Cango Wildlife Ranch in South Africa offered by Goeco.org. I applied and right away they reached out to me to get more information as well as see what my expectations were. They helped with planning flights, pick-up from the airport and settling my nerves. I also managed to get a leave from work because it was beneficial to my education.
It was my second year of university; I was still living at home and when I told my mother I wanted to go to South Africa she almost fainted. After a lot of convincing, she decided I could go but she would be joining. She had contacted Goeco to see if she would be allowed to volunteer for a short time as well, and they said yes. So that’s how my mother and I ended up in South Africa together. We explored some of the country for a couple weeks before the volunteering began. Once we got to the town where the Cango Ranch was, we were picked up from the airport and transported to the home where we were to live --the beautiful home of the Ranch owners, it even had a pool! There was someone cooking for us and cleaning up after us too; honestly, it was a dream situation. We spent our days feeding and cleaning enclosures of many of Africa’s animals, including large cats, lemurs, meerkats, bat-eared foxes, and fruit bats! After 2 weeks my mother had left, and I was moved into a different house where I lived with 8-10 other people of similar age. We had a blast; we were going out to bars in the evenings and exploring the country on the weekends. At 19 years old my body still functioned on no sleep. This was a very luxurious volunteer experience to say the least.
My mother and I with cheetahs after they were exhausted from their enrichment activity
Benefits of volunteering and interning:
Kianna LaBine has a Bachelor’s degree in Biology from the University of Alberta, and has always had a passion for animals. She is currently working at the Edmonton Humane Society as a Programs & Services administrator; two of their main programs are the PALS (Prevent Another Litter Subsidy) program and the TNR (Trap-Neuter-Return) program. The PALS program allows low-income families an opportunity to have their animals spayed or neutered at a discounted price to reduce the community’s homeless pet population. The TNR program helps feral cat colonies by humanely preventing unwanted litters and helping to combat pet overpopulation.
By Meredith Meeker
The snow is melting, temperatures are rising, and spring is right around the corner. Burlington has already scheduled their road closure for the Jefferson Salamander crossing (see more information here). That means salamander and frog call surveys are only a few rainy nights away. Spring ephemerals will be popping up alongside the arrival of early bird migrants.
Living in Toronto and even in the GTA, it can be difficult to find natural spaces to enjoy. My oasis, which never lets me down, is Tommy Thompson Park (also known as the Leslie Street Spit, or “The Spit”). It is a little ironic that where I go to get my nature fix is totally manmade and built on top of rubble and broken bricks.
Sitting on 250 hectares and 5 km long, the biodiversity within the park is staggering. The Spit is relatively young, in ecological terms, and was first constructed in the 1950’s for use by the Port Authority. The forest communities are young and are still dominated by successional plant species; notably Willows and members of the Poplar family. By contrast, the meadows and wetlands are full of beautiful flowering plants, attracting over 50 species of butterflies, 42 species of moth, and 17 species of dragonflies.
There are three main wetland cells, and a few smaller ponds, which make good habitat for many of the invertebrate species. It is also a great place to spot turtles on a sunny day! It is not uncommon to see Midland Painted Turtles, Common Snapping Turtles, Northern Map Turtles, and even Blanding’s Turtles all on the same day. If that isn’t enough to entice you down to the park, it is also home to melanistic gartersnakes, which are usually found around Lake Erie. Running around with all the herpetofauna are many charismatic mammals as well, including mink, beaver, and muskrats, but you will not be seeing many squirrels. This is likely because the park is still early in its forest succession and many nut-bearing trees, a squirrel’s favourite food, have not established yet.
The Spit is also a mecca for birding, with 316 bird species recorded. The long spit makes it an ideal stopover for migratory birds, and many birds will stay to breed. I once left work early because a Tri-colored Heron showed up at the park and I couldn’t miss it. It was totally worth it.
The first time I actually visited The Spit, I was participating in their BioBlitz. It was a fantastic way to get to know the park and I would highly recommend signing up for a BioBlitz in your area. If you have the opportunity to participate as a scientist or citizen, it is a great way to delve deeper into natural spaces around you. Bioblitzes are often lead by individuals that are passionate and knowledgeable about their local patch and are great ways to learn about the local biodiversity.
No matter where you live; whether it be in a concrete jungle, or your own piece of paradise, Ontario has something for you. After all, Ontario is ‘yours to discover’.
Meredith Meeker, B.A.S. is a Biologist and has been working at Cole Engineering Group Ltd. (COLE) for the last three years. She specializes in wildlife monitoring, including breeding birds, species at risk bat habitat and calling amphibians. Her favourite project at COLE has been monitoring two very successful replacement Barn Swallow nesting structures in Townsend, Ontario. Meredith presented on the project at the Latornell Conservation Symposium this past November (2018). Prior to working at COLE, she worked in Wildlife Rehabilitation and graduated from Niagara College's Ecosystem Restoration Graduate Certificate. In her spare time, Meredith loves birding and trying her hand at wildlife photography.
Can’t Land an Environmental Career? Have No Fear! How you can be an environmental leader without working in an environmental-related field.
By Samantha Davies
It became clear during my undergraduate years as an Environmental Studies major that Mother Nature would need all the help she could get. It seemed straightforward – we need a healthy environment for the economy to exist. While the loss of biodiversity is a serious threat to our natural ecosystems, you would think that this means tons of careers and opportunities available within the environmental sector, right?
When the job hunt began after graduation, I had to switch gears from searching for an environmental-related job and instead jumped on the opportunity that fell on my lap. I started at a financial technology company called XE.com as a Digital Marketer. This was completely new and outside of my realm of expertise. Since then I have learned a tremendous amount of transferable skills. These skills are in demand by the digital-age, which has no signs of slowing down.
Luckily, XE already encouraged sustainability practices around the office before I started a career there. Tapping into the green energy grid with over 10 years of supporting Bullfrog Power and setting up a local compost service through WasteNot Farms has made me proud to work for a business whose main purpose is not related to the natural environment. That made all the difference to me especially because I did not want my passion and previous education to go to waste.
Through organizing a litter clean up with my co-workers to introducing a straw-ban within the office (inspired by this hilarious “stop sucking” video by Buzzfeed), I am proud that the people I work with are so receptive to green ideas and initiatives. The best part about being a sustainability leader is that we can make an impact through our actions no matter where we end up in our career.
I recommend that in whatever industry you end up landing a career in, don’t be afraid to be your true, eco-nerdy self. One valuable lesson I have learned over the years is that people generally follow by example. Biodiversity and sustainability go hand-in-hand together– the more diverse an ecosystem the more sustainable and resilient it becomes. Celebrate your diversity within a setting that may not seem supportive at first because by showing your true colours, you will eventually make a positive impact wherever you end up.
If you have questions, feel inspired, or want to simply drop me a note, feel free to reach me at my email. Stay green and humble my friends!
Sam is an Environmental Studies graduate who believes in the power of diversity, believing that good ideas come to life through collaboration and positive energy. She is passionate about changing everyday behaviours that lead to more fulfilling and less wasteful lifestyles. From leading her “Litter Loner” series where she inspires others to pick up litter to becoming an avid digital marketer, Sam continues to make a positive impact wherever she goes! You can find her on Instagram @thrugreeneyes.
By Monica Seidel
#1. Smaller Network
The environmental field is often a very close-knit group of individuals and organizations. When you move to a northern community, that group gets even smaller. Within a few months at my job at the wildlife rehabilitation centre, I had the opportunity to partner with many of the leading groups and individuals in the area. Why? In my experience, reaching out with a cold call or email to someone in a smaller community is almost always more successful than reaching out to someone in a big city. This makes sense! There is less competition for their time, and there is often a greater desire to collaborate to increase awareness about both of your small organizations and missions.
#2. More Freedom
The organization I worked for was a very small non-profit. I was the only staff member when I started, which meant I could plan and execute different projects largely as I saw fit. I was given control, again, even if it was only a few months into my time there. It also allowed me the freedom to identify skills or programs that I wasn’t very proficient with and work on them. Not having concrete objectives (or pathways to achieve those objectives) gave me the freedom to essentially build my portfolio as I wanted!
#3. Amazing Outdoor “Work” Space
If you love the outdoors and having literally no one around for kilometres, you need to get yourself up to Northern Ontario. The wilderness and abundant wildlife is amazing, and was the absolute perfect setting for my job. Want to get workshop attendees excited about protecting wildlife? Go outside and explore. Having a stressful day and want to get away from people? Go outside and explore. Want to scope out locations to release animals while also getting some exercise and fresh air? Go outside and explore! Northern Ontario was the perfect setting for my work life and duties, but it also provided me a constant reminder of why I was in the environmental field.
#4. Less Competition
This is by far the most important reason I advocate others to move to a smaller community! There are fewer people living in these cities to start with, and most new graduates don’t want to move hours and hours away for a position. Graduating from university provided me with the perfect opportunity to move wherever I wanted – I had nothing tying me down to one location. If you think a job description perfectly suits you but you don’t love the location, apply anyway! At “worst”, it forces you to work on your application (and maybe even interview) skills. I knew that the position was in my desired field, and I knew how competitive the field was. I was very passionate about the organization’s mission and the job’s duties, and that became the reason for me to stay and find things I liked about the city.
Monica is an Environmental Science graduate from Queen’s University. Professionally she is focused on creating fun and engaging education experiences for audiences of all ages, and marketing using social media and creating videos. Here she is pictured looking for fish and turtles on a biology field course.
A young turtle gets a metal band stuck around its body; its body becomes deformed as it grows and the band does not break.
A pigeon loses a toe from floss or thread getting caught around its foot.
Fish ingest microbeads and that plastic is in turn ingested by humans that eat the fish.
The plastic island is 16x bigger than previously thought.
My dog ends up in the emergency room and almost died because he licked what seemed to be a littered marijuana cigarette butt in the lane.
These are just a few examples of the many problems that occur from littering.
I was in Cuba last year and noticed quite an amount of litter along the road and the beach. I went snorkeling and picked up a wrapper out of the ocean. I wondered how Cuba deals with garbage and recyclable products. On the resort, we tried to use our reusable water bottles or have drinks in glasses instead of plastic cups. As we had to use bottled water, I packed some empty ones in my suitcase to bring back to recycle in case there was no recycling on the resort. My dog was quite happy as he loves to play with the bottles!
At home in Toronto, litter is visible daily. While walking my dog, I observe trash in the lanes, loose bottles in the school yards, and poop bags or coffee cups in leaf bags sitting out for collection. Yet Toronto has quite the recycling program. Even plastic bags like milk bags and grocery store produce bags are recyclable now! They just have to be put all together in one plastic bag since individual ones can get caught in machines.
So why is there still litter? Laziness? Lack of consideration? Lack of caring? Lack of seeing the impacts of littering firsthand? It really is not that difficult to put items in their proper place, put a wrapper in your pocket until you get to a garbage can, or carry that empty coffee cup one more block until you get home. Even cutting the zips off Ziploc bags so they can be recycled is not much effort; it becomes routine.
Recycling was ingrained in me through school and my parents ensuring I put items in the appropriate bins. The school curriculum has not changed. Some schools and businesses are even getting more bins on site, such as compost bins in the bathroom for paper towel.
Ontario has a new strategy and new legislation that lays out Ontario’s vision for a circular economy and goals of a zero-waste Ontario with zero greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector: divert 30% of waste by 2020, 50% by 2030, and 80% by 2050. This is because each Ontarian, on average, produces more than 850 kilograms of waste every year. For the past 10 years, only 25 per cent of our waste has been recycled and the situation has not improved. This means that over eight million tonnes of our waste is sent to a landfill each year. The waste sector is also responsible for approximately six per cent of the greenhouse gas emissions we produce.
Achieving this goal will require change and sustained leadership. The four objectives, in summary, are as follows. More information can be found online here.
I think this is a very admirable goal and I am curious how it will go over with both consumers and manufacturers. I think we can do it if some attitudes change. Lists of which items go where can be printed from the internet and put above bins to teach or reinforce people about what goes where. Parents can give their kids incentives to recycle or make games out of it. The younger kids are taught, the more likely the habit will stick. It can be part of a routine. Join shoreline cleanups and find the most unique or grossest item or have a contest as to how many cigarette butts you can pick up (my friend and I picked up 2000 in a couple of hours). You will be helping to save wildlife, keep the environment clean, and even protect human health.
Katherine Wright has always been passionate about wildlife and wildlife conservation. She has a Master's of Science wherein she studied two populations of at-risk humpback dolphins. She has worked with many species as a keeper at the Toronto Zoo and is currently with the Zoo's Adopt-A-Pond Wetland Conservation Programme that focuses on conserving wetlands and their reptile and amphibian inhabitants.
Hello Emerging Leaders for Biodiversity!
Apologies for my lack of blogging during the past two and a half weeks while on the ground at the Convention on Biological Diversity's (CBD) 14th Conference of the Parties in Egypt. During my time there as the youth for the Canadian Delegation I was fully entrenched in all aspects of the conference. I invite you to check out the recently released second edition of the "CBD in a nutshell" guidebook published by the Global Youth Biodiversity Network, the official avenue for youth participation in the conference, which explains the full history, processes and areas for engagement in its 200 pages. A PDF version is available online via their website.
To share my experience at the COP, I would like to start with a description of my daily activities followed by a series of links to help you understand the outcomes of the meeting.
First thing in the morning I would sit in on the daily Canadian Delegation briefing, which would summarize the on goings of the previous day, including the Agenda Items in the halls, side events and bilateral meetings with other Parties or non-Parties.
Agenda items are first discussed in the main plenary hall, and then in working groups based on their categorization (namely administrative or scientific). If the item is highly controversial and Parties (states) cannot come to agree on policy wording, they will be invited to participate in contact groups or even smaller friends of the chair groups to come to agreements. Controversial items at this COP included digital sequencing information, synthetic biology and the post 2020 framework.
Side events, information booths and parallel events are run by various Parties and non-parties (NGOs, youth, businesses, industry representatives, Indigenous groups, sub-regional governments, etc.) to highlight relevant projects, reporting, implementation success stories and other topics of interest to participants at lunch and dinner times, as well as throughout the negotiations. These side events were more interesting to me than the negotiations due to their enlightening discussions on the implementation of the CBD policies.
Many members of the delegation, including the Heads of delegation, would participate in private meetings throughout the two weeks to form alliances and share their positions with other Parties and non-parties on specific topics. One day, I was fortunate to join in on some bilateral discussions and witness the formation of such agreements and arrangements for future collaboration with NGOs and Parties.
The morning meetings then discussed the timetable for the day, which were posted at https://www.cbd.int/conferences/2018. As the conference went on, the timetable became more and more overloaded and often items would switch on a dime, requiring negotiators to always keep an eye on the timetable to make sure they didn't miss their chance in the spotlight, as the Chair did not let talks start if the room was half empty. The leads, back ups and supportive staff for each agenda item would make arrangements here in the chance of overlapping items on the table, as there was two negotiation halls and many people covering multiple items. The list of the day’s side and parallel events was also provided. If delegation members were running or promoting a side event, they would have the chance to speak a bit on it. The morning meeting then closed with any additional administrative details and a good luck for the day!
The next 10 hours were spent running between negotiation halls, the side events, bilateral meetings at the food court and semi-functional washrooms, always in a hurry with something important to do next! Hence, my full absorption and lack of blogging throughout the conference.
Now, as I find time to breathe back home, I will be going through the numerous summary reports to figure out what exactly were the political outcomes of this most recent conference of the parties. See links below!
Thanks for reading, and look to our next newsletter for a further, detailed summary on the policy outcomes and information on an upcoming platform for youth participation in Canada!
Kelsey is an Environmental Consultant with formal training in the field of Ecology. Kelsey holds a Bachelor of Arts and Sciences in General Biology and International Development from the University of Guelph and a graduate certificate in Ecosystem Restoration.
In her role as Junior Ecologist, Field Support Staff and a GIS/CAD Technician, Kelsey assists with Ecological Land Classification inventories, mitigation plans, aquatic habitat assessments, wetland evaluations, tree health assessments and inventories, Significant Wildlife Habitat assessments and Species at Risk assessments.
She is Coordinator of Emerging Leaders for Biodiversity, sits on the board of the Ontario Environment Network, and held the youth spot on the Canadian Delegation at the recent COP14 of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
It's that time again! A board member of Emerging Leaders for Biodiversity (ELB) is on her way to the United Nations (UN) Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD) COP-14 in Egypt! See below for a re-cap of what CBD is… Previously provided by Thomas, ELB Chair, in 2016:
"We've all heard about the Convention on Biological Biodiversity (CBD) and it sounds super fancy, but what is it? I could tell you that it was born out of the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 and officially came into being in 1993. I could tell you that its building blocks were being put into place in 1987 - maybe even further back in 1972. At the end of the day, to understand what the CBD is, all you need is one word: Treaty. The CBD is an international UN treaty tasked with creating national strategies that conserve biodiversity, promote the sustainable use of biodiversity and share, in a fair and equitable way, the benefits that arise from genetic resources. In simple terms, the CBD is an international treaty concerned with biological diversity."
Over the next three weeks Kelsey, the current Coordinator of ELB, will be providing background information and updates on the happenings of the convention as she represents the voice of youth on the Canadian Delegation. Stay tuned!
There has been an ongoing debate on Twitter about which is the better taxa: #BirdsVsFish. This debate stemmed from some friendly trash tweeting in 2015 between Patrick Doran (@pjdgreatlakes), Director of Conservation at the Nature Conservancy in Michigan, and Solomon David (@SolomonRDavid), an Assistant Professor at Nichols State University. Since then, the #BirdsVsFishdebate has grown to a much larger audience, with scientists vehemently (but kindly) defending their study taxa.
The #BirdsVsFish debate is fun for me because I have a passion for both birds and fish. In my present position as a Visiting Fellow with Fisheries and Oceans Canada, my research is dedicated to the conservation and recovery of freshwater fishes. However, I didn’t start my research career studying fishes, in fact, my research career began as an undergraduate in Connecticut studying migratory waterbirds. Studying birds is what got me excited about doing conservation research, but I’ve now dedicated my career to conserving fish! Clearly I’m torn in the #BirdsVsFishdebate!
A great part of the #BirdsVsFishdebate, and more broadly social media, is how it provides a platform for scientists to talk about their work or study species. I would argue that one of the most important jobs of a scientist is to communicate their science (see the Twitter hashtag #scicomm to see what scientists are doing all around the world).
There are many outlets for scientists to communicate their work and the choice is largely dependent on the intended audience. Most often, scientists write technical reports or peer-reviewed journal articles to satisfy professional duties, but these outlets are rarely read by people outside of their scientific discipline and may be inaccessible to people that lack journal or magazine subscriptions. As such, scientists are frequently getting involved in other forms of communication, including writing for blogs (like this one!) and through social media engagement like #BirdsVsFish.
Social media engagement can provide several benefits to scientists that have only recently been realized. For academics or those publishing in the peer-reviewed literature, highly tweeted journal articles have been demonstrated to be more frequently cited than less tweeted articles, and maintaining a social media presence can allow users to access new research coming out in their fields. Outside of academia, engaging in social media as a biodiversity professional can lead to new connections with other professionals, it can provide a platform for you to enhance the outreach of your science, and it can inspire others to engage in science.
As community members with an interest in protecting biodiversity, we have a responsibility to communicate why biodiversity is important and how it impacts each and every one of us on a daily basis. For me, I choose to tweet, write blogs, give oral presentations at workshops and conferences, write technical reports, and write peer-reviewed journal articles. As well, if you lend me your ear, I will talk it off about the diversity of fishes in Canada. How do you choose to communicate your science?
Karl Lamothe is a Visiting Fellow at the Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences with Fisheries and Oceans Canada. In his current position, Karl is working towards improving the science of species reintroductions for freshwater fishes protected under the Species at Risk Act. Karl received his PhD from the University of Toronto where he was interested in ways to measure the resilience of freshwater ecosystems to human disturbances. Karl is active on Twitter: @KarlLamothe and you can read more about his research on his website: http://www.karllamothe.com.
You know when you are hiking a trail of packed earth, through a forest, and suddenly you hear the trickle of a babbling brook? That’s what I get excited about. These streams that seem to effortlessly find their way through the forest, cascading over boulders and creating crystal clear pools. It strikes me that the gentle force of water will always find a way to flow. The beauty of the soft sound of water makes me stop and appreciate the ecosystem that it supports.
Streams are not only a beautiful force of nature, but provide so many functions to the ecosystem. You will be amazed at how much life there is in a stream. Kick some gravel and there are hundreds of bugs in a few square centimetres. If you ever get a chance to go on an electro-fish survey, I highly recommend it. The amount of fish hiding out of site in a stream will floor you. Coldwater streams are particularly interesting. The temperature usually results from direct contact with the water table. At the headwaters, cumulative impacts to the water quality are minimal. As you move downstream in the watershed, these cumulative impacts increase. Coldwater streams are clear, well oxygenated and cleaner. Perfect conditions for top predators like Brook Trout!
Many of these cold streams are warming up due to land use changes or historical degradation. It is almost impossible to create a new coldwater stream. Protecting and rehabilitating coldwater streams is very important, especially in Southern Ontario. Stream rehabilitation does not always need engineers, water physicists and government staff. At Trout Unlimited Canada (TUC), volunteer community groups and biologists work together to improve stream health all across Ontario. There are six chapters in Ontario that care for the streams in the watersheds they live in.
If you are interested in streams, want to educate yourself about stream rehabilitation or join a local working group; TUC is a great place to start. TUC is offering affordable workshops on Stream Rehabilitation Training in September 2018. Join a local chapter and participate in a work day to get some hands on experience. If you love the water but don’t have the time you can still support our work by becoming a member or donating.
One of our upcoming planned events:
*Check TUC Chapter Facebook events for more details on time and location
Laura is an Aquatic Biologist who spends her time coordinating stream restoration projects at Trout Unlimited Canada.
By Kathryn Norman
When I started university (or, if I’m being honest, throughout most of my life), narrowing down a field of interest was difficult for me. I sort of wanted to go into healthcare, but I was also really interested in ecology, physics, anthropology and so many other subjects. You can’t blame me – the world is pretty full of interesting stuff and neat things to learn about.
I chose to focus on the biological sciences, but even within those bounds there was a lot of choice. Brains are super interesting, so neurobiology was a must. Mucking around in swamps is fun, so some natural history and ecology field courses were needed too. Bioinformatics was new and exciting. Plants, also, are very cool. And animals! Don’t get me started! So many exciting animals.
Don’t get me wrong, I’m not trying to dump on any of the things I studied at university – if I could, I’d go back and study more! I’m just trying to set the stage for how I ended up focussing on none of those topics. Of the many fields I dabbled in, ecology really grabbed me. Concepts like the stability and resilience of ecosystems were fascinating. The number of different ways of asking questions about the natural world, and of finding answers, was novel. It didn’t hurt that I had some amazing professors and found the subject material intuitive.
I’m not sure where I first encountered the term “invasive species”, but I do remember the course that drew me into that field. It was a fourth year biology course called “Plants and Herbivores”. I think I mostly took it because I needed another half credit at that level. It also fit in my schedule, and I remembered having liked the prof in a previous class. I didn’t really grasp what it was about until it started, but this is where I got into the ins and outs of invasive species biology at an ecosystem level. I loved the class. I did fantastically well in it. Through it, I ended up with a summer research job, and found myself starting a Master’s degree studying invasion biology and biological control. You could actually say it changed my life.
I didn’t end up going on to a career in healthcare, or even in academia, but ended up in the environmental non-profit sector. I am in a position that allows me to stay up to date on many of the wide range of topics I had a hard time choosing between in undergrad. But I repeatedly come back to invasive species ecology, in one way or another.
Invasive species are one of the largest threats to biodiversity, in Canada and worldwide. We see this over and over again with examples such as Asian carp, zebra mussels, Phragmites australis and many others. Now we need to be on the lookout for a new potential threat: the Spotted Lanternfly.
Native to much of Asia, the Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula), is at least, well, easy to spot. A type of planthopper (family Fulgoridae, a type of “true bug”), it is brightly coloured in almost all of its life stages, about an inch long as an adult, and distinctively spotted. It is mainly a pest of trees and orchard fruit including grapes, and was first reported in North America in 2014 in Pennsylvania. Before coming to North America, it became a serious introduced pest in Korea, and there is fear for the orchard and logging industries in North America if it becomes widely established. Over 70 host species have been identified, including most orchard fruits and important tree species such as maple and birch, so the potential ecological and economic impact of this pest is large.
Perhaps the easiest way to spot an infested tree is the weeping wounds that the Spotted Lanternfly leaves in the bark – similar to if you drove a nail into a tree and then pulled it out, allowing sap to flow down the outside of the tree. Nymphs also secrete honeydew, which can accumulate around the base of plants (and also attract aphids). Both the sap and the honeydew may grow a sooty black mold. Egg masses are somewhat camouflaged, and are covered with a layer of a grey waxy substance. If spotted, they can be scraped off and the eggs killed with ethanol.
Fortunately, the Spotted Lanternfly has not yet been reported in Canada, but the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has recently added it to its list of regulated pests. Inspectors will check for evidence of it on cross-border shipments of tree products, and the general public is encouraged to report any suspicious specimens they find (which can be done through the CFIA contact form here.
Currently, the Spotted Lanternfly population in North America is confined to Pennsylvania, although the rest of the continental United States (and by extension, Canada) is considered at risk. On a positive note, there have been reports of an existing biocontrol agent (the egg parasitoid Ooencyrtus kuvanae, introduced in hopes of controlling Gypsy Moth populations in 1908) using Spotted Lanternfly egg masses. This represents a novel host for this parasitoid, and presents a possibility of biological control without much additional work.
Kathryn Norman is the editor of the Peace & Environment News, Communications Coordinator at Sustainable Eastern Ontario, and a communications volunteer with the Ontario Invasive Plant Council and Ontario Environment Network. She did her M.Sc. in invasive species ecology at Carleton University.
Blogs are written by ELB members who want to share their stories about Ontario's biodiversity.